TABLE OF CONTENT

  • Abstract
  • Background to study
  • Introduction
  • The herbal alternative
  • The Yoruba
  • Concepts of illnesses and diseases
  • Agbo (Yoruba herbs)
  • Diseases and their Agbo cure
  • Agbo versus orthodox (Modern) drugs
  • Adverse effects of Agbo
  • Conclusion
  • End notes

 

ABSTRACT

Agbo has been a veritable source of medicine before the advent of orthodox drugs and it is still being used today by most of the population, literate and illiterates alike. In fact orthodox drugs is just a scientifically improved Agbo while Agbo is the crude proto type of orthodox drugs. There are still many ardent believers of the efficacy of Agbo even though it is proven to have serious adverse effects on human health. In as much as Agbo has short comings its efficacy has been proven, hence, its short comings need serious attention in order to be tackled so as to make Agbo safe for human consumption.

 

 

Key words: Agbo, plants, herbs, Yoruba, illnesses, traditionalist, trado-medical, Orthodox drugs, vendors, traditional medicine

 

BACKGROUND TO STUDY

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the population of some Asian and African countries presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of basic health care. African traditional medicine is the oldest, and perhaps the most assorted, of all therapeutic systems. African traditional medical knowledge is often wrongly perceived and portrayed by westerners as static and ahistorical. Yet African therapeutic systems certainly evolve and is dynamic, just as all other therapeutic systems do through empirical knowledge, trial and error, debate, and paradigmatic shifts, despite local claims to authority based on tropes of ancient or traditional legacies. African trado-medical practice is a form of holistic health care system that has in it the interconnectedness of herbalism and spirituality. The traditional doctor, native doctor or even vendor indeed provide health care services based on culture, religious background, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that are prevalent in his or her community. It is no doubt that African traditional medical practices remains an important aspect in contemporary African lives.

The various “nationlets” in Nigeria have various traditional health care practitioners and traditional health care systems unlike their Western counterparts when compared. The Yorubas refer to these trado-medical practitioners as “babalawos,” and the Igbos call them “dibia,” while the Hausas know them as “boka”. It should be worthy of note that these traditional medical practitioners dress in special attires and these days days some even do not. Trado-medical practices have impacted on the lives of people, especially in the rural areas where access to orthodox medicare is limited and mostly unaffordable. Apart from the lack of adequate access and the fear of expired or fake drugs, the prohibitive cost of orthodox drugs and western medicine in general makes traditional medicine attractive. Recently, various training schools exist for both traditional medicine and homeopathy, and as such, most modern trado-medical practitioners have combined great knowledge of pharmaceutical constituents of herbs and the shared cultural views of diseases in the society and they equally combine their knowledge with modern skills and techniques in processing and preserving herbal medicines, as well as in the management of diseases.


INTRODUCTION
Archaeological evidence bespeaks that the use of medicinal plants dates back to the Paleolithic age, approximately 60,000 years ago. Written evidence of herbal remedies dates back over 5,000 years to the Sumerians, who collated lists of plants. Some ancient cultures wrote about plants and their medical uses in books called Herbals. In ancient Egypt, herbs are mentioned in Egyptian medical papyri, depicted in tomb illustrations, or on rare occasions found in medical jars containing trace amounts of herbs. The earliest known Greek herbals came from Theophrastus of Eresos who, in the 4th century BC, wrote in Greek Historia Plantarum, from Diocles of Carystus who wrote during the 3rd century BC, and from Krateuas who wrote in the 1st century BC. Only a few fragments of these works have survived intact, but from what remains, scholars noted overlap with the Egyptian herbals. Seeds likely used for herbalism were found in archaeological sites of Bronze Age China dating from the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC). Over a hundred of the 224 compounds mentioned in the Huangdi Neijing, an early Chinese medical text, are herbs. Herbs were also commonly used in the traditional medicine of ancient India, where the principal treatment for diseases was diet. De Materia Medica, originally written in Greek by Pedanius Dioscorides (c. 40–90 AD) of AnazarbusCilicia, a physician and botanist, is one example of herbal writing used over centuries until the 1600s. Therefore, the development and use of traditional herbal medicine have a very long historical background that corresponds to the Stone Age. In Africa, trado-medical healing and magic is a lot older than some of the other trado-medical sciences and seems to be much more prevalent compared to conventional medicine.

Herbal medicine which can also be referred to as herbalism is the study of pharmacognosy and the use of medicinal plants, which form the basis of trado-medical practice. The scope of herbal medicine basically includes fungal and bee products, as well as mineralsshells and certain animal parts. Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine or phytotherapy. herbalism could also be explained as a study or practice of the medicinal and therapeutic use of plants or the formulation of remedies and medicines made from plants. Plants typically comprise of mixtures of different phytochemicals, also known as secondary metabolites that may act solely, additively, or in synergy to improve health. Indeed, medicinal plants, unlike pharmacological drugs, commonly have several chemicals working together catalytically and synergistically to produce a combined effect that surpasses the total activity of the individual constituent. Paraherbalism describes alternative and pseudoscientific practices of using unrefined plant or animal extracts as unproven medicine or health-promoting agents.

African trado-medical practice has the fusion of divination, spiritualism, and herbalism, though these may overlap in some situations. A trado-medical practitioner is one who provides medical care in the community that he lives in and beyond, using herbs, minerals, animal parts, incantations, and other methods, based on the cultures and beliefs of his or her people. He or she must be competent, diligent, versatile, experienced, and trusted. Traditional medicine is viewed as a combination of knowledge and practice used in diagnosing, preventing, remedying and eliminating disease. The knowledge and practice rests on past experience and observations handed down from generation to generation either verbally, frequently in the form of stories, or spiritually by ancestors or, in modern times, in writing. It has also been said that before attaining knowledge in trado-medicine, one is often required to be initiated into a secret society, as many characteristics of this form of medicine can only be passed down to initiates. Sometimes, particular lineages are known with this herbal practices.1 The importance of trado-medical practices, however, dwindled during the colonial period, whereby it was viewed by colonialists as inferior to Western medicine. It was thus banned completely in some countries due to its affiliation with witchcraft /voodoo, supernatural, and magical implications, in which case, it was also termed “juju” in Nigerian corrupt English Language2 since it made use of charms and symbols which were used to cast or remove spells. Some forms of treatment include ritual practices such as animal sacrifices to appease the gods, if the ailment was envisaged to be caused by afflictions from the gods, especially in the treatment of the mentally ill patients.

It is therefore not surprising that traditional medical practice, however, seems to be a modern acceptable concept agreed on by the Scientific Technical and Research Commission (STRC) of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which is now African Union (AU). Africans governments are now widely accepting trado-medical solutions to illnesses, for example, Madagascar’s production of the COVID-19 herbal drink.

 

THE HERBAL ALTERNATIVE

African Trado-medical practice is the sum total of knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to various cultures that are used to maintain health, also, to prevent, diagnose, improve, or treat physical and mental ailments. Trado-medical practice that has been widely adopted by other populations outside the indigenous culture is often termed complementary or alternative medicine but Kofi-Tsekpo, states that the term “African traditional medicine” is not synonymous with “alternative and complementary medicine.” African traditional medicine is the African indigenous system of health care and therefore cannot be seen as an alternative. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) report, 80% of the emerging world’s population relies on traditional medicine for therapy. The widespread use of traditional medicine in Africa, has been arguably related to cultural and economic reasons. This is why the WHO encourages African member states to promote and incorporate trado-medical practices in their health system.

Africa is regarded as the cradle of mankind with a very rich biological and cultural diversity characterised by regional differences in healing practices. Indeed, Africa is blessed with mammoth biodiversity resources and it is estimated to contain between 40 and 45,000 species of plant with a potential for development and out of which 5,000 species are harnessed medicinally. This is not surprising since Africa is located within the tropical and subtropical climate and it is a known certitude that plants accumulate important secondary metabolites through evolution as a natural means of surviving in a belligerent environment. There are always two sides to a coin as whatever has an advantage definitely equally has a disadvantage, because of her(Africa) tropical conditions, Africa has an unfair proportion of strong ultraviolet rays of the tropical sunlight and numerous pathogenic microbes, including several species of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, suggesting that African plants could accumulate chemopreventive substances more than plants from the northern hemisphere.

Agbo is the traditional way of treating illness. Before orthodox medicine, there has been traditional medicine.3 During the olden days there was no easy access to orthodox drugs therefore Agbo became a veritable source of medicine.4 Even before access to orthodox drugs, Agbo was the only thing available for usage.5 The use of medicinal plants or herbs as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing and administering medicinal plants and its products are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the countrysides and at times the only therapy that exists. Humans from time immemorial have been exposed to sickness, so they have always used human knowledge to cure there themselves through inquisitive nature.6 Over time, they found out what worked for what. Medicine is as old as man. The Agbo knowledge has always been passed from generation to generation.7 Once one is born in Yorubaland and one’s parents are not doctors or medical practitioners and even when they are educated, one takes Agbo automatically.8

The bush, according to Africa’s belief, though physically remote, is crucial to Africa’s well-being.9 The bush is the place where the spirit world infused the natural world with power. This made the plant and animal products of the bush potent substances that could strengthen bodies and physical boundaries. The untamed power of the natural world permeated the plants and animals in the bush, which could be harnessed by humans for both benevolent and malevolent ends.10However, the documentation of medicinal uses of African plants and traditional systems is becoming a crucial exigency because of the rapid loss of the natural habitats of some of these plants due to anthropogenic activities and also due to colossal loss of valuable traditional knowledge. It has been reported that Africa has some 216 million hectares of forest, but the African continent is also notorious to have one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world, with a calculated loss through deforestation of 1% per annum.

African trado-medical practices in its different forms is all encompassing involving both the body, the spirit and the mind. The traditional healer usually diagnoses and treats the psychological basis of an illness before prescribing medicines, especially herbs, to tackle the symptoms. The vendors equally administers herbal medicines to consumers at the mention of their health challenge. The unabated interest and patronage of traditional medicine in the African healthcare system can be justified by two major reasons as earlier mentioned. The first one is inadequate access to orthodox drugs and other Western forms of treatments, whereby the bulk of the people in Africa especially in the rural areas cannot afford access to modern medical care either because it is too expensive or because there are scarce or no medical service providers. There is a lack of effective modern medical treatment for some ailments such as malaria, although global in distribution, incommensurately affect Africa more than other areas in the world. The most common traditional medicine in common practice across the African continent is the use of herbs. In many parts of Africa, medicinal plants are the most easily accessible health resource available to the community. In addition, they are most often the preferred option for the patients. For most of these people, traditional healers provides information, counseling, and treatment to patients and their families in a personal manner as well as having an understanding of their patient’s environment.

Secondly. In fact trado-medical practice can be explained as a fundamental part of the culture of the people who use it and also due to the economic challenge, on the one hand, the pharmaceutical drugs are inaccessible to the poor and on the other hand, the richness and diversity of the fauna and flora of Africa are an inexhaustible source of therapies for panoply of ailments. This group of people prefer herbs for so many reasons which include being born and bred with traditional medicine, being stuck or used to it, or just by preference. However, there is still insufficient scientific evidence to show that these herbs are effective and safe for humans.

 

THE YORUBA

The Yoruba is a “nationlet”, a race or an ethnic group that occupies part of West Africa, particularly NigeriaBenin, and Togo. The population of the Yoruba scattered round  Africa is around 35 million. Yoruba is one of the three largest and major ethnic groups in Nigeria, concentrated in the Southwestern part of the country. Much smaller, scattered groups live in Benin and northern Togo. Bulk of the Yoruba population are from Nigeria, where the Yoruba make up 21% of the country’s population, making them one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. The Yoruba people speak the Yoruba language, which belongs to the Niger-Congo group of language with the largest number of native speakers. The number of speakers were roughly estimated at about 30 million in 2010. The word “Yoruba” (or more correctly “Yaraba”) was originally used to refer to the old Oyo Empire and was the usual Hausa name for Oyo people according to Hugh Clapperton and Richard Lander. Thus, the word “Yoruba” was popularized by Hausa usage and ethnography written in Ajami during the 19th century by Sultan Muhammad Bello. The protraction of the term “Yoruba” to all speakers of dialects related to the language of the Oyo dates back to the second half of the 19th century. Traditional political authority is vested in the “oba” and a council of chiefs; constituent towns each have their own ruler, who is subordinate to the oba. The oba is also a ritual leader and regarded sacred.

There are many stories about the origination of the Yoruba people. Some stories talk about the migration of the Yorubas from Mecca, some are about the conquest of the aborigines, the Ikedu people by the Oduduwa migrants while some attribute the origin of the Yorubas to spirituality, that is the famous Yoruba origin of creation, where Obatala created the earth with a cock having 5 toes (this explains why till today in Ife, some sacrifices are done with a cock having 5 toes), sand and a shell. As of the 7th century BCE the African peoples who inhabited Yorubaland were not originally known as the Yoruba, although they shared a common ethnicity and language group. By the 8th century, a powerful kingdom already existed in Ile-Ife, known to be one of the earliest in AfricaOral history recorded under the Oyo Empire derives the Yoruba as an ethnic group from the population of the older kingdom of Ile-Ife. However, the Oyo hegemony was dealt a big blow by the Sokoto Jihadist (alongside other remote causes) ultimately leading to its eventual collapse. The other Yoruba city-states became liberated from Oyo’s control and subsequently became entangled in a series of internecine wars in the 19th century. The incessant wars only weakened the Yorubas in their resistance to British colonial and military invasions leaving room for their subsequent annexation. In 1960, Yorubaland was subsumed into the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Today, majority of contemporary Yorubas are either Christians or Muslims while others are purely native worshippers. However, the traditional faith of their ancestors either knowingly or unknowingly are upheld by a significant proportion of the populations.

The Yoruba religion consists of the traditional religious and spiritual concepts and practices of the Yoruba people. Yoruba religion is formed of various traditions and does not have a single founder. Yoruba religious beliefs are the sum total complex of songs, histories, stories and other cultural concepts that make up the Yoruba society. One of the most common Yoruba traditional religious concepts is that of Orisa. Orisa (also spelled Orisha or Orixa) are different godly forms that reflect one of the various manifestations or avatars of God and smaller gods in the Yoruba religious system. Yoruba culture consists of cultural philosophy, religion and folktales.

The traditional Yoruba calendar (kojoda) has a 4-day week and 91 weeks in a year. Traditionally, the Yoruba count their week starting from the Ojó Ògún, this day is dedicated to Ògún. The second day is Ojó Jákúta the day is dedicated to Sàngó. The third day is known as the Ojó Òsè- this day is dedicated to Òrìshà ńlá (Obàtálá), while the fourth day is the Ojó Awo, in honour of Òrúnmìlà. The Yoruba year spans from 3 June of a Gregorian calendar year to 2 June of the following year. According to the calendar developed by Remi-Niyi Alaran, the Gregorian year 2021 AD is the 10,063rd year of Yoruba records of time. With the British colonial and European cultural invasions and eventual conquest came the need to reconcile with the Gregorian calendar, The Yorubas also measure time in seven days a week and 52 weeks a year. The seven days are: Ọjọ́-Aiku (Sunday), Ọjọ́-Aje (Monday), O̩jọ́-Iṣẹgun (Tuesday), Ojo-Irú (Wednesday), Ọjọ́-Bo̩ (Thursday), Ọjọ́-E̩tì (Friday) and O̩jọ́-Àbamé̩ta (Saturday). Months of the year are Sere-January, Erele-February, Erénà-March, Igbe-April, Èbìbí-May, Okudu-June, Agẹmo-July, Ogun-August, Òwéwé-September, Ọwara-October,  Bèlu-November,  Òpe-December.

 

THE CONCEPT OF ILLNESS

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health is defined as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Illness according to a conventional meaning can be referred a disease or period of sickness affecting the body or mind and it can also mean an unhealthy condition of the body or mind. In Africa, illness is regarded as having both natural and supernatural or spiritual causes and thus must be treated by both physical and spiritual means, using divination, incantations, animal sacrifice, exorcism, and herbs. In African traditional setting, there was always an explanation as to why someone was suffering from a certain disease at a particular time. According to Ayodele, diseases mostly centre around witchcraft/sorcery, gods or ancestors, natural, as well as inherited. Illness in the African society is very different from the orthodox or Western medicine point of view.11 Illness is believed to be of natural, cultural, or social cause. Cultural or social illness is thought to be related to supernatural causes such as angered spirits, witchcraft, or alien/evil spirits, even for conditions now known to be well understood in modern medicine such as hypertension, sickle-cell anemia, cardiomyopathies, and diabetes,12 this belief is still held till date, according to a source, the cause of cancer can be attributed to negligence of spiritual attacks, that is leaving such attacks unattended to for a long time and there are various kinds of cancer. So it is glaring most of the ailments especially in Yoruba land is believed to be from spiritual attacks.13 African traditional beliefs consider the human being as being made up of physical, spiritual, moral, and social aspects. The functioning of these three aspects in unison signified good health, while if any of the three is out of balance, it signified sickness. Thus, the treatment of an ill person involves not only attending to his/her physical being but may also involve the spiritual, moral, and social components of being as well.

 

AGBO

Agbo is a part and parcel of and sometimes synonymous with Yoruba trado-medical practices. Agbo which is herbal medicine, also called botanical medicines, vegetable medicines, or phytomedicines, as defined by World Health Organization (WHO) refers to herbs, herbal materials, herbal preparations, and finished herbal products that contain whole plants, parts of plants, or other plant materials, including leaves, bark, berries, flowers, and roots, and/or their extracts as active ingredients intended for human therapeutic use or for other benefits in humans and sometimes animals. Agbo is a special and prominent form of traditional medicine, in which the traditional healer, in this case known as the herbalist, specializes in the use of herbs to treat various ailments. Their role is so remarkable since it arises from a thorough knowledge of the medicinal properties of indigenous plants and the pharmaceutical steps necessary in turning such plants into drugs such as the selection, compounding, dosage, efficacy, and toxicity. Other plant materials could include bulbs, rhizomes, imperata cylindrica (spear grass), tubers, stems,14seeds and essential oils: gums, exudates, and nectars.15 Agbo is drug basically for the body. It is a substance when taken the body becomes well and strong.16

The general term for herbs in Yoruba language is “Agbo” and it has so many types with several terms.17 Apart from Agbo people call it “ewe” or “egbo”.18 Agbo is very important,19 Agbo is vital part of everyday life.20 In fact it is as important as food because it has many uses.21 In Yorubaland it is believed to work wonders. Agbo is used for medicinal purposes, it also serves as food,22 sometimes it is used for fragrances, while some are used in preparing charms23, spices24 and so on. Agbo are natural plants for medications and are prepared in different forms. Some are ready made for consumption,25 some are prepared with alcohol and some water,26while some are to be taken with pap or custard.27 It can also be taken with specific carbonated drink-7up drink.28 Leaves have their time and season, Leaves sleep especially at night. Herbs especially leaves cannot be plucked anyhow, when plucked at the inappropriate time will not work. Plant can be of good and evil. Please note that it is not all plant that are perfect for medicine. There are poisonous ones.29 Agbo is not sweet, it is very bitter30 while some are tasteless31 or sour.32 There are different reactions to Agbo as it works according to body system.33

These ardent Agbo-believers are not usually far fetched. They can be found in our immediate family often persuading you to take Agbo. Many of such individuals were born into it and they grew up in it and of course, our environment of course affects our behavior, they even make a living from it and often passed down from generations to generations.34  There are “awo” lineages of herbalists often inherited a full time job of herbalism, it is often a very good and lucrative job and they can compete favorably with medical doctor.35

Agbo is used on children right from birth as confirmed by 99% of all the interviewees.  80% of the interviewees attested to the efficacy of Agbo as they still use it. Many Yorubas were born and bred with Agbo. They as well all agreed that there is a connection between Agbo and spirituality. They burn mixtures, prepare concoction, soak some, pray on them, chant different things and people take them for different challenges. Even people with financial problems often take these, clerics often use different herbs. People with infertility too take several herbs.36When taken it works almost immediately37 while some take time to work.38 There are normal herbs and spiritual herbs.39 The action of the herbs supersedes scientific evaluation.40 But scientists believe drugs work in relation to our psychology instead of spirituality. In other words, it works with mindset.41

The herbs are gotten from diverse sources. Some can be stressful to get so in such cases there are suppliers of these materials because they cannot be easily found around. There have emerged go-to sources were these stuffs can easily be sourced. There are equally markets for these things.42 Sources of Agbo can be from or immediate surroundings,43 from the bush(forest), some of which can be domesticated but others cannot.44 One can get the seed of herbs and replant as the Mother Earth is favourable to Nigeria,45 some can be gotten only in secret places.46  Sale of herbs in form of dried or fresh plant parts is as lucrative as the prepared medicines. They are usually displayed in markets and sold with instructions on how to prepare them for maximum efficacy.

 

PICTURES OF AN AGBO STORE

Photo credit: Ekeh Roseline Uloma, 3rd of July, 2021. Lafenwa market, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria.

 

DISEASES AND THEIR HERBAL REMEDY

There are different kinds of Agbo for different ailments,47 both health and spiritual issues.48 The prescriptions are different depending on conditions and the herbs.49 Some work almost immediately while some take hours when taken.50 It is believed Agbo is generally very safe. Some are taken hot immediately after boiled.51 While some contain just roots, some contain just leaves and others even mixture. But all these herbs work by the God’s will.e.It is believed western medical practices do not have a cure for some ailments like hypertension and diabetes of which Agbo has a permanent cure to and even when such person goes back for test, it will be recorded it has totally gone. There is Agbo for extreme ailments like cancer.52 Some and their Agbo cure include:

  • Agbo iba for malaria
  • Agbo jedi for pile
  • Agbo ale for strong erection
  • Agbo idakole for quick ejaculation
  • Agbo omode for children
  • Agbo obiriomode for new born babies
  • Agbo panju for urinary issues
  • Agbo jedo jedo for typhoid
  • Agbo atosi for gonorrhea
  • Agbo inurirun for stomach ache
  • Agbo iletutu for convulsion
  • Agbo warapa for epilepsy
  • Agbo oyi oju for drowsiness
  • Agbo awoka for arthritis
  • Agbo akokoro for toothache
  • Agbo giri for seizures
  • Agbo yetutu for cold
  • Agbo opeyin for pack pain
  • Agbo ito sugar for diabetes
  • Agbo mokole for long erection
  • Agbo beli beli for sore throat
  • Agbo yora yora for weight loss
  • Agbo fundipo for vaginal tightening
  • Agbo poroporo for weight gain53
  • Agbo afato for man power
  • Agbo kokoro inueje for blood purification54
  • Agbo Eje for blood
  • Agbo oju for eye issues
  • Agbo ejeriru for high blood pressure55
  • Agbo inarun for dizziness works within 3days.56
  • Agbo tita for measles is made from leaves only. 57

 

PICTURES OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF AGBO IN THE MARKET

 

Photo credit: Ekeh Roseline Uloma, 3rd of July, 2021. Lafenwa market, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria.

 

Some of these Agbo have seeds like Agbo Jedi, opa eyin, ale, etc. and there are agumu for headaches. No matter the kind of headache, one will be relieved.58

It is believed that there are some ailments that do not require injections but Agbo like stroke so it will not get worse. When such patient is taken to hospital and he or she is injected it will get worst but if treated locally by Agbo, it will subdue the power of the cause and the person will get totally well.59  During the Covid 19 pandemic (lockdown), herbs were used. A mixture of hot water, ginger, garlic, lemon was cooked together, sieved and the water drunk for both prevention and cure of Covid-19, and this was proven to work. The governor of a certain south western state in Nigeria was heard to have taken Agbo and got healed during Covid. For stomach pain, one can easily pluck ewuro (bitter leaf), mix with efirin (scent leaf), squeeze both juices, sieve and drink. For mouth odour one could chew bitter leaf stem to stop it, this stem can also be chewed in the case of nausea, and use onions for eyes related issues.60 Dangoyaro leaves (neem) and the plant as a whole has numerous uses. People peel the stem and use it for babies, they cook the plant and use the water from it to bathe babies as well giving the child to drink for health benefits. It is usually mixed with other things for skin problems.61 Ori (Shea butter) is used for catarrh and also to maintain the skin. There is herbs for stomach pain- gbogbonise it is black in colour, it has a sour taste. The meaning of gbogbonise is “works for all”. Simply put, it works for all ailments. Its efficacy has been attested to, it is equally used on wounds for fast healing.62

Agbo is equally used in childbirth, even during pregnancy, Yoruba mothers recommend some specific herbs for the expectant mother because it is believed when these herbs are taken, the baby in her will be strong and to make childbirth easier. For mothers that just welcomed their new born, there are Agbo for them especially to heal them fast though painful. Western civilization came and destroyed this aspect of motherhood (ante-natal). During the olden days there were women called “Iyabiye” meaning “midwife”. Interestingly, there are few of them around today especially in remote areas (countryside). These women know the kinds of herbs to administer to expectant mothers and well as nursing ones. There are different kinds of Agbo for babies,63 it is believed Agbo is good for them as it makes them strong.64

Herbal medicine practitioners that administer Agbo could be hawkers, herbal shop owners65 or herbalists (native doctors). Whenever one feels unwell, he or she informs his or her special vendor or a random one and the vendor either herbalist(native doctor), shop owner or hawker administers the solution. It should be noted these vendors are usually happy selling it.66

 

A PICTURE OF A HAPPY AGBO VENDOR

Photo credit: Ekeh Roseline Uloma, 3rd of July, 2021. Lafenwa market, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria

 

AGBO VERSUS ORTHODOX (MODERN) DRUGS

Herbal medicine was once termed primitive by western medicine but through some scientific investigations on some herbs there is a better understanding of its therapeutic activities such that many pharmaceuticals have been modeled on phytochemicals derived from it. Most herbs make up the active ingredients of most drugs nowadays.67 Herbs are plants that are used to manufacture different drugs, put simply they are the starting ingredients of different drugs. Herbs are very important in pharmacy.68 Traditionalist argue that the fact Agbo is termed very deadly is merely a propaganda, a false information to uphold the superiority of Orthodox medicine. It is further argued what tablet can do Agbo can do better and what tablets cannot do, Agbo can.69

All drugs either traditional or orthodox work by altering chemical processes in the body what causes side effects are usually the dosages or the compositional constituents.70 Agbo works like orthodox drugs.71 Plants have been the primary source of most medicines in the world, and they still continue to provide mankind with new remedies. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all drugs in clinical use, of which higher plants contribute more than 25%. These are no doubt more important in developing countries but quite relevant in industrialized world in the sense that pharmaceutical industries have come to consider them as a source or lead in the chemical synthesis of modern pharmaceuticals. A number of African plants have found their way in modern medicine. These plants which had been used traditionally for ages have through improved scientific expertise been the sources of important drugs. Examples of such drugs and their sources include: Ajmalicine for the treatment of circulatory disorders and reserpine for high blood pressure and mental illness both from Rauvolfia serpentina, L-Dopa for parkinsonism is obtained from Mucunaspecies, vinblastine and vincristine used for the treatment of leukemia from Catharanthus roseus, physostigmine from Physostigma venenosum, or “Calabar bean,” used as a cholinesterase inhibitor, strychnine from the arrow poison obtained from the plant Strychnos nux-vomica, atropine and hyoscine from Atropa belladonna leaves. A host of other African plants with promising pharmaceutical potentials include Garcinia kola, Aframomum melegueta, Xylopia aethiopica, Nauclea latifolia, Sutherlandia frutescens, Hypoxis hemerocallidea (African wild potato), and Chasmanthera dependens as potential sources of antiinfective agents, including HIV, with proven activities, while Cajanus cajan, Balanites aegyptiaca, Acanthospermum hispidum, Calotropis procera, Jatropha curcas, among others, as potential sources of anticancer agents. Biflavonoids such as kolaviron from Garcinia kola seeds, as well as other plants, have antihepatotoxic activity. The arthesunate for malaria is gotten from a tree in China which they still use today to treat malaria.72

But these ardent Agbo believers still think if one uses Agbo for a particular ailment and Agbo does not solve the issue then orthodox drugs will be the last resort and vice versa dug. Implying both are powerful.73  They argue Agbo flushes impurities from the system and Agbo works better even though drugs are good, contrary to what is perceived by the rest of the world as Agbo affecting vital organs rather Agbo cleanses these organs of toxins.74 They further argue some conventional drugs are rather harmful, hence they prefer Agbo to orthodox drugs. To them orthodox drugs are extracted from herbs after which they add chemicals to preserve it and turn it to tablet form and these drugs are gradual killers because one consumes chemical with the herbs. Orthodox drugs are now easily accessible because not everyone can go into the bush to get herbs, boil them and drink, so people opt for the ready made orthodox package. These school of thought believe Yorubas do not appreciate what they have, as being blessed with medicinal resources.75 They also believe Agbo is very safe for consumption,76 that it has little or no side effects. It has dosages which must not be exceeded. Its instructions must be adhered to. If the dosage is exceeded, it causes damage to the health.77 Once you take the right dosage one is fine.78 For example, the Agbo for diarrhea is to be used in the morning only and prohibited at night.79 In criticism of orthodox drugs, for cough one could take just sugar and palm oil instead of cough syrup that contains codeine making one high.80 Most of these vendors claim since they have been recommending and selling to people, there have been no complaints or bad reviews about it, instead they have been getting thanks.

Orthodox drugs are usually measured in particular dosages. The risk of possible harmful side effects of Agbo is higher than orthodox drugs because it has been experimented on and dosages have been standardized.81 Science is against one medication working for different things. Different diseases of the body have different pathological process. What sciences does is to discover the process and act according to it. There is no way one drug can act according to all process.82 When ingredients of drugs are discovered, they are extracted, purified and calculated into dosages, then prescribed.83

Many of the orthodox drugs today are from these same materials that are used for Agbo. It is believed they work similar to how the conventional drugs work in the body.84 Agbo is good, orthodox drugs are equally good as the latter is gotten from the former. nonetheless, the trado-medical believers hold this belief one cannot be used for replace another,85 meaning Agbo can be the last resort vis-a-vis orthodox drugs, if any fails to proffer adequate solution to a health challenge.86 Orthodox drugs are just improved traditional medicine.87 Most of the interviewees especially those that are not in the sciences prefer Agbo to orthodox drugs.

 

ADVERSE EFFECTS OF AGBO

Both Western and Agbo come with their own challenges. Currently, there are many orthodox drugs in the market which have several side effects, in spite of their scientific claims. In like manner, African traditional herbal medicine or healing processes also have their own challenges. The pose serious side effects to humans. Even conventional/scientific drugs. The common knowledge is all drugs are poisonous depending on their concentration or their mode of use, they have their different levels of toxicity not to talk of the one that has not been standardized at all.88 Agbo is traditional herbs that contain particular ingredients that is neither purified nor separated from its source take to treat a particular ailment. It works but it also causes side effects because of the other toxic ingredients in it, “it is a double edged sword”. 89

There is no scientific process actually standardizing its measurement and also controlling its mechanism of action. There is equally no process to give Agbo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. Basically Agbo is unstandardised drugs.90 There are no standard dosages of Agbo and it is not prescribed by a doctor but people that inherited herbal knowledge from their parents or guardian or elsewhere.91 When these herbs are consumed before taken to the lab for scientific evaluation, one takes in both the needed and “un-needed” ingredients of the herbs. Unlike drugs when a particular ingredient is isolated from the herbs for a particular ailment. But the consumption of Agbo is the consumption of everything in the herbs both toxic and important and this posses serious threat to human as a result of possible negative side effects.92 It being harmful to the health because it is right for the herbs to be taken to the lab first before consumption, however taking all the herbal mixture all together works.93 The problem with Agbo is with the measurement and the process that has gone into making it.94 Major obstacles to the use of African medicinal plants are their poor quality control and safety. Agbo manufacturing activities to a large extent is still shrouded with much secrecy, with few reports or documentations of adverse reactions.

Most roots are poisonous especially when taking them in their concentrated for m.95 Most roots damage the liver and kidney of which it is a major component of some Agbo. Agbo is prone to causing side effects of Agbo comes from the composition, people mix Agbo with various things like alcohol (raw gin), the alcohol asides from the Agbo itself can cause health issues.96 There are many problems and challenges that could pose to any human, for example, kidney damage because the kidney gets to process many of the drugs we take in and many other substances that are actually toxic to the kidney depending on their concentration. People have been diagnosed with kidney failure due to Agbo intake especially children. There are other organs of the body too that can be affected asides kidney and liver. There are several other reactions that can arise from Agbo intake like diarrhea.97

Most people use Agbo blindly by not using the right treatment and the actual problem keeps lingering on. In other words, using Agbo in the first place distracts people from taking the right treatments and by the time they will, it might be late already. It distracts from proper management of human health conditions.98 Another challenge from taking Agbo include improper diagnosis which could be misleading. The dosage is most often vague and the medicines are prepared under unhygienic conditions, as evidenced by microbial contamination of many herbal preparations sold in the markets. Toxicity may also arise as a result of herb-drug interaction in situations where there is co-administration of herbal medicines with some orthodox drugs or supplements . Incorrect identification and misuse of plants may also lead to toxicity. The knowledge is still shrouded in secrecy and not easily disseminated. Some of the practices which involve rituals and divinations are beyond the scope of nontraditionalists such as Christians who look at it as incomprehensible, unacceptable, and also fetish. They even find it difficult to access such services.

In as much as medicinal herbs have established therapeutic effects, they may also have the potential to induce adverse effects if used incorrectly or in overdose. The likelihood of adverse effects becomes more apparent due to indiscriminate, irresponsible, or nonregulated use and lack of proper standardization. These concerns have been the focus of many international forums on medicinal plants research and publications. The rich flora of Africa contains numerous toxic plants, though with interesting medicinal uses. The toxic constituents (e.g., neurotoxins, cytotoxins, and metabolic toxins) from these plants can harm the major systems of the human body (cardiovascular system, digestive system, endocrine system, urinary system, immune system, muscular system, nervous system, reproductive system, respiratory system, etc.). Both the trado-medical practitioners and consumers are surprisingly ignorant of its potential toxicities. Several herbal medicines have been reported to have toxic effects. Current mechanisms to track adverse effects of herbal medicines are inadequate. Consumers generally consider herbal medicines as being natural and therefore safe and view them as alternatives to conventional medications. Only very few people who use herbal medicines informed their primary care physicians. It is therefore likely that many adverse drugs reactions go unrecorded with either patients failing to divulge information to health services, and no pharmacovigilance analyses are being carried out, or the observations are not being reported to appropriate quarters such as health regulatory bodies.

These Agbo vendors and consumers alike see the rationale about one drug taking care of everything.99 But those western medical personnels see it as a big scam.100 The people that take Agbo without any serious adverse effects are considered lucky because there are several other very unlucky people who have taken what others have taking for years unharmed, while others take it once or twice and have serious health issues (I.e renal failure) depending on how one’s your body system reacts to it.101

 

CONCLUSION

Long before the advent of orthodox medicine, Africans had developed their own effective way of dealing with diseases, whether they had spiritual or physical causes, with little or no side effect. African traditional medicine, of which Agbo is the most prevalent form, continues to be a relevant form of primary health care despite the existence of orthodox medicine. As such, a host of herbal medicines have become generally regarded as safe and effective. This, however, has also created room for quackery, massive production, and sales of all sorts of substandard herbal medicines, as the business has been found to be lucrative.

The fact people use them and get well, has led to its continuous usage and belief it has no side effects, hence, many people use them still. It actually (safe to say) Agbo is not totally safe until it is properly experimented on.102 There is limited scientific evidence for the safety and efficacy of plants used in 21st century herbalism, which generally does not provide standards for purity or dosage however traditional-medical practices relies on the belief that preserving various substances from a given source with less processing is safer or more effective than manufactured products, a concept for which there is no evidence.

Agbo may have a bright future which can be achieved through collaboration, partnership, and transparency in practice, especially with conventional health practitioners. Such collaboration can increase service and health care provision and increase economic potential and poverty alleviation. Research into traditional medicine will scale up local production of scientifically evaluated traditional medicines and improve access to medications for the rural population. This in turn would reduce the cost of imported medicines and increase the countries’ revenue and employment opportunities in both industry and medical practice. With time, large scale cultivation and harvesting of medicinal plants will provide sufficient raw materials for research, local production, and industrial processing and packaging for export.Traditional medicine cannot be taken away but it should be worked on by science.103 This has proven to work because it has been what their fore-bearers depended on for healing processes, it is therefore a generational knowledge.104

These days the herbal vendors have gone as far as using different social media platforms to advertise their wares in various ways. Indeed, herbal medicine that is Agbo is going nowhere in Yorubaland.

 

END NOTES

1Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

2Interview with Lawal Joseph Sadiq, 27years in Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria on the 16th of August, 2021.

3Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

4Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75 years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

5Interview with Mrs Abiodun (aka iyalagbo-an eleweomo that is an Agbo shop owner), 52 years in Lafenwa, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria on 3rd of July, 2021.

6Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

7Ibid

8Ibid

9Julie, L. (2005). Debility and Moral Imagination in Botswana. Bloomington, USA: Indiana University Press

10Ibid

11Ayodele, S.J. (2002). “The Yoruba Cultural Construction of Health and Illness”. Nordic Journal of African Studies. Ibadan, Nigeria: University of Ibadan Press. 11(3). pp 322-335

12Ibid

13Interview with Mrs Abiodun (aka iyalagbo-an eleweomo that is, an Agbo shop owner), 52 years in Lafenwa, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria on 3rd of July, 2021.

14Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

15Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

16Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75 years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

17Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

18Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

19Ibid

20Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

21Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

22Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

23Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

24Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

25Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

26Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

27Interview with Temitayo Ojewande, 20years old, Monatan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on 28th of July,2021.

28Interview with Mrs Abiodun (aka iyalagbo-an eleweomo that is, an Agbo shop owner), 52 years in Lafenwa, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria on 3rd of July, 2021.

29Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

30Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

31Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

32Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

33Interview with Mrs Abiodun (aka iyalagbo-an eleweomo that is, an Agbo shop owner), 52 years in Lafenwa, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria on 3rd of July, 2021.

34Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

35Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

36Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

37Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

38Interview with Temitayo Ojewande, 20years old, Monatan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on 28th of July,2021.

39Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

40Ibid

41Interview with Pharm. Bosah Chiemerie Francis, 25years, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on 12th of July, 2021.

42Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

43Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

44Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

45Interview with Pharm. Bosah Chiemerie Francis, 25years, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on 12th of July, 2021.

46Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

47Interview with Mrs Abiodun (aka iyalagbo-an eleweomo that is, an Agbo shop owner), 52 years in Lafenwa, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria on 3rd of July, 2021.

48Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

49Ibid

50Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

51Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

52Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

53Interview with Mrs Abiodun (aka iyalagbo-an eleweomo that is, an Agbo shop owner), 52 years in Lafenwa, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria on 3rd of July, 2021.

54Interview with Temitayo Ojewande, 20years old, Monatan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on 28th of July,2021.

55Interview with Lawal Joseph Sadiq, 27years in Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria on the 16th of August, 2021.

56Interview with Babalola Akinkunmi Moses, 28years old in Ibadan Secretariat, Oyo State Nigeria on 22nd of July,2021.

57Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

58Interview with Mrs Abiodun (aka iyalagbo-an eleweomo that is, an Agbo shop owner), 52 years in Lafenwa, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria on 3rd of July, 2021.

59Ibid

60Ibid

61Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

62Ibid

63Ibid

64Ibid

65Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

66Interview with Mrs Abiodun (aka iyalagbo-an eleweomo that is, an Agbo shop owner), 52 years in Lafenwa, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria on 3rd of July, 2021.

67Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

68Interview with Pharm. Bosah Chiemerie Francis, 25years, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on 12th of July, 2021.

69Ibid

70Interview with Mrs Abiodun (aka iyalagbo-an eleweomo that is, an Agbo shop owner), 52 years in Lafenwa, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria on 3rd of July, 2021.

71Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

72Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

73Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

74Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

75Interview with Mrs Abiodun (aka iyalagbo-an eleweomo that is, an Agbo shop owner), 52 years in Lafenwa, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria on 3rd of July, 2021.

76Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

77Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

78Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

79Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

80Interview with Olubunmi Deborah Olasupo, 75years in Ikereku, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 7th of June, 2021.

81Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

82Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

83Ibid

84Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

85Ibid

86Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

87Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

88Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

89Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

90Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

91Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

92Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

93Interview with Pharm. Bosah Chiemerie Francis, 25years, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on 12th of July, 2021.

94Interview with Sikuade Daniel Oluwasegun, 25years old, Abulegba, Lagos, Nigeria on the 9th of July,2021.

95Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

96Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

97Ibid

98Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

99Ibid

100Interview with Femi Richmond Omokulade (Personal Assistant to Hon. Yusuf Adebisi of the 9th Assembly, Oyo state), 28years old, in Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo State on the 18th of May, 2021.

101Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

102Interview with Dr. Aremu Peter Seyi, 25years old, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria on the 10th of July,2021.

103Ibid

104Interview with Dr. Ugboke Joshua Osemidiame, 28years in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria on the 14th of August,2021.

105Ibid

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Featured images by Ekeh Roseline Uloma

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