The concept of globalisation has become a subject matter in the contemporary academic discourse. Moreover, China’s interaction with Africa continent began several centuries ago, and since 1971, China and Nigeria have been interacting on different economic fronts. The aim of this study is to interrogate globalisation and Chinese illegal economic activities in Nigeria, by examining the areas, the factors and the effects of these illicit economic activities on Nigerian economy. The work depends mainly on primary and secondary sources for its analysis. Primary sources include oral interviews and archival materials. Secondary sources consist of textbooks, journals, and policy papers. The study shows that some Chinese have been engaging in some illegal economic activities in Nigeria such as illegal mining, fishing, logging of timber, importation of cheap and inferior goods into Nigeria. Some factors responsible for Chinese illegal economic activities in Nigeria are highlighted like the age of globalisation, corruption, porosity of Nigeria’s spaces and indebtedness. The study also indicates that capital flight, strangulation of local industries, poverty and increased banditry, are the effects of Chinese illegal economic ventures in Nigeria. Thus, until Nigeria develops a functional political system, Chinese illegitimate economic activities will continue unabated in the country.

Introduction

Globalisation is a “process through which people, capital, goods and services, information and ideas flow across borders and lead to greater integration of economics and societies.”[1] Globalisation has impact on the economic development, political system, environment and social life of people across the globe. People’s quest for economic and socio-political expansions informed the idea of globalisation. Over the years, several nations of the world have interacted between/among themselves on various economic fronts. Irrespective of how one looks at the situation of things in Africa today, be it political, social, economic and technological, they resulted from the interactions of Africans with the outside world.

Furthermore, China’s presence in Africa dates back to centuries and covered a lot of earliest dynasties. It was Zheng He, a eunuch administrator and diplomat during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) in imperial China that first arrived on East African coastal area several years even before Vasco da Gama. This African voyage was undertaken with approximately 27,800 individuals and 200 ships.[2] The diplomatic relations between Nigeria and China were officially inaugurated at ambassadorial level on February 10th, 1971. This was signed due to the supports Chinese government gave to Nigeria and other Africa countries in their struggle against colonialism. The two governments agreed to establish their friendship and cooperation on the basis of principle of mutual respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, non-mutual aggression and mutual benefits.[3] On April 6th, 1971, China established her Embassy in Lagos and Nigeria did the same in October of the same year.[4] Since 1971, the economic activities of the Chinese people have continued to increase astronomically in Nigeria ranging from trade, construction investments, health sector, delivering of aids and many others.

Literature Review: Chinese Economic Ventures in Nigeria and other cognate areas have over the years generated some levels of scholarly attentions. To better understand the subject matter, some related bodies of literature were reviewed. For clarity, the review is carried out thematically, covering works on Chinese trade relations, investments and China’s Aids to Nigeria.

Authors on Chinese Trade Relations with Nigeria include:  T. J. Ayoola;[5] G. Mthembu-Salter;[6] L.C. Nwachukwu;[7] and O.C. Adesina;[8] discussed the historical background of bilateral relations between Nigeria and China. They indicated that China has benefitted more in her trade endeavours in Nigeria to the detriment of Nigerian economy. They recommended that enhancement of governance, direct investment, prohibition of imported goods from China which can be produced in Nigeria, can help Nigeria gain more through its economic relations with China.

Authors on Chinese Investments in Nigeria are: S. A. Raji and A. Ogunrinu;[9] M. Egbula and Zheng, Qi.;[10] Y. Sun;[11] P. I. Tom-Jack;[12] E. O. Ogunkola et al;[13] interrogated Chinese investments in Nigeria and Africa in general. The authors noted that China has emerged as a major investor in Nigeria more than other Western investors. These investments are obvious in industrial and communication sectors, construction of railways, roads and airports. Absence of political risk evaluation and the inadequate economic strategy are stated as some of the factors associated with Chinese investments in Nigeria and other African countries.

Authors on China’s Aids to Nigeria include: G. F. Lola et al.;[14] Y. A. Mengesha;[15] P. Mandon and M. T. Woldemichael;[16] examined China’s Aids to Nigeria and other African countries from year 2000. China’s aids to African nations are classified into two types like project aids and loan aids. The authors opined that these aids have assisted in enhancing economies of the beneficiaries (nations). However, they have some negative impact on the governance, plunging the recipients into huge debts and insignificant in size. The papers recommend that African nations should try to understand the terms and conditions attached the concessional loans, technical assistance and grants from China before accepting such offers.

The above reviewed papers are very crucial to my work and they have enormously helped in addressing my research question on the illegal economic activities of the Chinese in Nigeria.

Research Question: Several studies that deal with China in Africa and Nigeria have concentrated mostly on cognate areas such as trade relations, aids, investments, among others, with the profound omission of the Chinese illegal undertakings in Nigeria. Thus, this project work seeks to interrogate “Globalisation and Chinese Illegal Economic Ventures in Nigeria, 2000 – 2020.” The study tends to answer some pertinent questions: In which areas have the Chinese perpetrated illegal economic ventures in Nigeria? What have been the factors responsible for Chinese illegal economic activities in Nigeria? What are the effects of Chinese illegal economic ventures on Nigerian economy? These issues need our attention because they will fill a significant gap in the body of knowledge on the Nigeria and China economic discourse. It will also help us to decipher the nature, extent and implications of Chinese illegitimate economic endeavours on Nigerian economy during the period under review.

Methodology: The work depends fundamentally on primary and secondary sources for its analysis. Primary sources include oral interviews and few archival materials. Key informant interviews were conducted with intentionally selected stakeholders in the Nigeria–China economic relations. The perspectives of the interviewees were mostly the opinions or voices of the academicians and the participants in economic activities in Nigeria. The oral interviews also expanded my understanding of Chinese illegal economic activities in Nigeria far beyond information from secondary sources. The secondary sources include: textbooks, journal articles, policy papers, and they were used as appropriate companions for interrogating the primary sources for fresh insights.

Scope of the Study: The take-off period of this work is year 2000, while the terminal date is 2020. The year 2000 was a period when China intensified her foreign aids and trade in Nigeria and other African countries.[17] The year 2020 marked a period when 17 Chinese people and some Nigerians were arrested in Osun state, Nigeria, due to illegal mining activities (see footnote 24).

Areas Where the Chinese Have Perpetrated Illegal Economic Ventures in Nigeria

Most of the interviewees like O.C. Adesina,[18] R.O. Olaniyi,[19]  Y. Ibrahim,[20] and C.E. Dinne,[21] affirmed that many Chinese are in Nigeria in several respects as businessmen, industrialists, entrepreneurs, contractors and so on. Nevertheless, the interviewees opined that some Chinese are also carrying out numerous illegal economic activities in different sectors of economy in Nigeria, namely: mining, fishing, logging timber, unregulated imports of cheap goods into Nigeria. Although Chen Bzoa asserted that many people have labelled Chinese presence in Africa as a new form of neo-colonialism and several of these critics do that out of prejudice.[22]

Mining: Adesina, Dinne and Olaniyi identified mining industry as the most notable area where these illegal activities had been perpetrated by the Chinese in places like Osun, Ondo, Zamfara, Sokoto and other states in the Northern Nigeria, where there are gold, without approved licences. For instance, in 2019, two other Chinese citizens were arrested over illegal mining activities in Zamfara state by the Nigerian Police Force (see video 1 below).[23] Likewise, about 17 Chinese and 9 indigenes were arrested in Osun state by Amotekun Joint Security Task Force, Osun state, over illegal mining ventures in 2020 (see video 2 below).[24] Adesina also stated that it has been affirmed that increased banditry in the Northern Nigeria is being fuelled through illegal mining operations by the Chinese in the Northern Nigeria because bandits get money from them.

Fishing: According to Adesina, the Chinese engage in illegal fishing and all kinds of fishing practices in West Africa known as deep sea fishing. He and Dinne noted that their method of fishing has to do with the use of sophisticated equipment which destroys fishes in the sea, even the matured, immature fingerlings, and their eggs, which are not ripe enough for harvesting in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.

Illegal fishing activities by Chinese [25]  
These activities contribute in depleting the stock of resources in territorial waters along the coast of West Africa. Dinne indicated that he initially wanted to carry out his PhD research on “Maritime Insecurity in Nigeria.” And having read several articles on Nigerian Maritime Administrative and Safety Agency (NIMASA) and even in the course of his interview with indigenous people in the Niger Delta, he was informed that these Chinese normally use big ships and large nets that cover almost ten kilometres to harvest all the fishes in the area. This deprives the local fishermen their means of livelihood. He further stressed that every country has what is called territorial nautical boundaries in the sea which the Chinese do not obey in Nigeria.

Logging of Timber: Dinne and Adesina stated that some Chinese engage illegal logging of timber in Nigerian forests and they collaborate with indigenes and traditional rulers in committing these illegitimate acts, without obtaining due licences from the government. Dinne said that they are selective in the type of tree they cut like iroko, mahogany, among others. He asserted they have almost ten timber industries in Lagos and he knows about two located at Ajah in Lagos, where they turn these timbers into finished products like furniture, cabinets, beds, cupboards and other wooden products and export them to other countries of the world. They also sell these products to Nigerians at exorbitant prices. K. Eman et al affirmed that there have been evidences of illegal logging of woods like obeche, mahogany and iroko trees in the Mid-west and South-west forest zones like Delta, Edo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti, and Oyo states. These illegal activities are being perpetrated by foreign syndicates, majorly from Asian continent like the Chinese, Lebanese and Indians, who ship these woods to industries abroad for production of firearms, coachwork, ceremonial objects and boat construction.[26]

Unregulated Import of Cheap Products: Olaniyi observed that Chinese products are also parts of the reasons why Nigerian economy is still functioning. This is because they usually supply affordable and accessible industrial products like electronics, wares, automobile spare parts, generators, many others, that were produced bearing in mind the third world peculiarities of Nigeria. Adesina opined that American and European made goods have become very expensive; therefore, average Nigerians have access to cheap and almost useless goods produced by the Chinese because they are not costly. Ibrahim indicated that the Chinese have been flooding Nigerian markets with cheap products, though in accordance with the specifications given to them by Nigerian importers. He further stated that Nigerians are major cause of this problem because the Chinese are also producing durable goods for the Americans and Europeans. Dinne added that the Chinese cannot be totally blamed on this issue because various governmental agencies in Nigeria such as the Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON), the Nigeria Customs and the National Agency of Food, Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), are not performing their duties in regulating the importation of these substandard goods into Nigeria.

Factors Responsible for Chinese Illegal Economic Activities in Nigeria

The Force of Globalisation: According to Adesina, the age of globalisation which allows free movement of people, ideas, goods and services, is one of the factors encouraging Chinese illegal activities in Nigeria. He noted that in a situation where the economy is deregulated and foreign investors are bid to come; to send them away may not be easy because they were summoned by the government. Ibrahim added that China is presently among the world powers with very large population, advanced technological and financial capabilities to produce goods in greater quantities. And these have given them influence in various countries of the world, including Nigeria.

Corruption and weak political system: Ibrahim observed that Nigeria governmental officials who sign contract with the Chinese are corrupt and they do not have the future in mind. These officials only consider the immediate gains, thereby sabotaging the present and the future generations. They have failed in safeguarding the economy of Nigeria appropriately because of their engagement in bribery and corruption. Chen recounted how his Chinese friend working with a Chinese Construction Company in Nigeria told him that there was a time the company completed a project for the Federal Government of Nigeria, some government delegates sent to inspect the work came demanding for four million naira bribe, instead of carrying out the inspection. Thus, corruption and weak political system are the remarkable factors aiding Chinese illegal economic activities in Nigeria.

Interview with Yabuku Ibrahim 

Local Collaborators: Dinne, Adesina and Ibrahim opined that these Chinese normally collaborate with indigenous people and traditional rulers in the communities where these illicit acts are being committed. Adesina observed that inability of the Nigerian government to provide gainful employment opportunities for her teeming youths facilitate the thriving of these illegal activities. Dinne added that these Chinese perpetrators normally offer the people bribe in terms of money, cars and other exotic goods.

Porous Nature of Land Borders: Dinne affirmed that all the Nigerian spaces are porous and these influence illegal economic activities in the country. The Nigerian Navy, Maritime Police, Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC) have all failed in safeguarding the Nigerian waterways and natural resources. These Chinese perpetrators often bribe to the security agents of the above named agencies. He also stated that there is what is called “aiding and abetting” in criminal proceedings and this explains why these security agents collect bribes from these foreigners to carry out illegal acts in Nigeria.

Interview with C. E. Dinne

He further stressed that the Chinese have sound knowledge of the porosity of territorial spaces and corrupt system in Nigeria and they are taking advantage of it, because they cannot commit all these illegal ventures in countries like Israel, South Africa, Rwanda, Ghana, with functional political structures. Olaniyi affirmed that illegal dealings are more prominent in the mining sector that is somehow less supervised by the required Ministry Department Agencies (MDAs) of the government.

Indebtedness:  Ibrahim and Dinne noted that another factor is that Nigeria is indebted to China in billions of dollars. Virtually all the funds being used to construct railways in Nigeria under the leadership of the Minister of Transportation, Mr. Rotimi, Amaechi, were borrowed from China and Chinese companies are also undertaking all the railway construction works throughout the country. These have also given some Chinese nationals the effrontery to engage in illegal activities because Nigeria is indebted to China.  For instance, as at March 31, 2020, the overall Nigeria’s external debts service fee to China was USD94, 609.40.[27]

 

The Effects of Chinese Illegal Economic Ventures on the Nigerian Economy

Capital Flight: Adesina, Olaniyi and Dinne, identified capital flight or tax evasion as one of the effects of illegal economic activities of the Chinese in Nigeria. These illegal economic activities do not allow taxes to be paid to the Nigerian government, thereby contributing nothing to the economy. For instance, the former Minister of Mines and Steel Development, Alhaji Bawa Bwari, once disclosed that within a space of three years, about 18 tons of gold worth USD1.16bn were illegal taken away from Nigeria and absolutely had no contribution to the country’s Gross Domestic Products (GDP) (see video 3 below).[28] Again, Dinne opined that Nigeria has been losing about 10 tons of fish annually, amounting to 35 billion naira through illegal fishing activities of the Chinese. On illegal logging of timber, the Osun State Government lost more than 10 million naira to illegal forest operators in the year 2000.[29]

Strangulation of Local Industries: According to Adesina, Dinne and Ibrahim, the over flooding of Nigeria markets with cheap Chinese goods are killing Nigeria local industries, especially the textile industries. Adesina opined that it would be difficult to stop them because we are in the age of economic liberalisation where markets are not completely regulated. He further stressed that Nigeria local industries need to develop strategies in order to outrival them by making their goods more competitive. In 2008, the Nigerian Senate threatened to ban importation of Chinese products into Nigeria because they were closing down local industries through invasion of Nigerian market at the detriment of locally manufactured products, as well as engagement in some illegal transactions like piracy and sell of contaminated products.[30] Ibrahim indicated that Nigerians will keep spending money on a particular product because most Chinese goods being imported into Nigeria lack durability. Dinne recounted the ordeals of his friends at Afikpo in Ebonyi state, in 2019, who ignorantly bought Chinese electric cables to wire of his new house. At the first installation of light in the house, everything got burnt. This was because the materials were inferior.

Increased Cases of Unemployment and Poverty: Dinne stated that as Chinese cheap products are closing down local industries in Nigeria, it leads to unemployment and poverty, thereby making workers in those industries incapable of providing the basic needs of their families. Those companies will also stop paying taxes to the government and this has adverse effect on the Nigeria’s GDP. He asserted that Nigeria was rated among the poorest countries in the world according to the World Bank Index in 2019. On fishing, the illegal fishing activities by the Chinese are denying the local fishermen their means of their livelihoods.

Increased Banditry, Criminal Activities and Communal Violent Conflicts: Adesina noted illegal mining activities by the Chinese in the Northern Nigeria have occasioned rise in banditry, criminal activities, local violent conflicts, and these have resulted to death of many people. For instance, in 2019, there were a lot of killings in Zamfara State from these ugly developments. The illegal mining activities have also occasioned environmental degradation by increasing ecological hazards, contamination surface cum underground waters, leading to death of several children and adults. In Niger State, about 28 children lost their lives in 2019 as a result of water contamination through illegal mining operations. Additionally, Dinne observed that the illegal cutting of timber in Nigerian forests is increasing the problems associated with deforestation like climate change, depletion of the ozone layers and greenhouse effects, which are threats to human lives.

Conclusion

This paper has been able to interrogate globalisation and Chinese illegal economic ventures in Nigeria. It is worthy of noting that Chinese people are major players in various sectors of the economy in Nigeria and have over the years contributed immensely to the economic development of the Nigerian State as facilitated by the age of globalisation. However, some Chinese have been guilty of perpetrating illegal economic activities in Nigeria in areas such as mining, fishing and logging of timber and over flooding of Nigerian markets with cheap and substandard goods. Until Nigeria develops a functional political system, devoid of corrupt practices and capable of regulating the economic undertakings of both its citizenry and foreigners as it obtains in several developed countries of the world, the illegal economic ventures of the some Chinese people will continue unabated in Nigeria.

It is sacrosanct to realise that the Chinese are not the only foreigners carrying out illegal economic activities in Nigeria. There are others like the Lebanese and the Indians. Therefore, this paper awaits the interrogation of the Lebanese and the Indians illegal economic ventures in Nigeria.

Bibliography

Primary Sources

 (a) Oral Interviews

S/N Names of Interviewees Designation Place of Interview Date of Interviews
1  Adesina, O.C. Professor and Head of History Department, University of Ibadan. University of Ibadan 27/04/22
2  Chen, B. PhD Student, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, China. National Archives, Ibadan. 19/04/2022
3 Dinne, C. E. Research Officer 1, Cocoa Research Institute, Ibadan. University of Ibadan. 28/05/2022
4 Ibrahim, Yakubu Businessman, Agbowo Ibadan. Agbowo, Ibadan. 30/04/2022
5 Olaniyi, R.O. Professor of History, University of Ibadan. University of Ibadan. 29/04/2022

 

(b) Archival Sources

National Archives Ibadan (NAI) – Nigeria, China to establish diplomatic relations. Morning Post. Thursday 11 February 1971.

NAI – Osun loses N10m to illegal forest operator. Daily Times. Monday 11 September 2000.

NAI – Fagbami, Soji-Eze. Senate threatened to clamp down on Chinese products. Nigerian Tribune. Wednesday 5 November 2008.

 

Secondary Sources

(a) Books

Egbula, M. and Zheng, Qi. 2011. China and Nigeria: powerful South-South alliance. Paris: Sahel and West Africa Club Secretariat (SWAC/OECD).

Mandon, P. and Woldemichael, M. T. 2022. Has Chinese aid benefited recipient countries? Evidence from a meta-regression analysis.  International Monetary Fund (IMF) Publications.

National Bureau of Statistics. 2020. Nigerian domestic and foreign debt. Abuja: Nigeria.

Sun, Y. 2014. Africa in China’s foreign policy. Africa in China’s foreign policy: John L. Thornton China Centre and Africa Growth Initiative. New York: Brookings.

(b) Journal Articles

Adesina, O.C. 2012. Friendship with the ‘Dragon:’ mapping the contemporary China-Nigeria interactions in the global marketplace. Wilberforce Island Journal of History 1: 13-40.

Age´nor, Pierre-Richard. 2004. Does globalization hurt the poor? International Economics and Economic Policy: 1-31.

Ayoola, T. J. 2013. Nigeria-China trade relations: implication on the Nigerian domestic economy. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting 4.17: 98-104.

Lola, G. F., Rasiah, R., Teng, K. K., Muhammad, M., & Agboola, Y. H. 2017. China’s aid and oil for infrastructure in Nigeria: resource driven or development motive? Contemporary Chinese Political Economy and Strategic Relations: An International Journal 3.3: 1197-1235.

Mengesha, Y. A. 2020.The economic effects of Chinese foreign aid. Journal of Economics and International Finance 12. 4: 262-277.

Mthembu-Salter, G. 2009. Elephants, ants and superpowers: Nigeria’s relations with China. South African Institute for International Affairs (SAIIA) Occasional Paper 42: 1-32.

Nwachukwu, L. C. 2017. The political economy of Nigeria-China bilateral relations. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Reviews 7. 2: 127–135.

Ogunkola, E. O., Bankole, A, S., & Adewuyi, A. 2018. China‐Nigeria economic relations. African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) scoping studies on ChinaAfrica relations: 1-15.

Raji, S. A. and Ogunrinu, A. 2018. Chinese investment and its implications for Nigeria’s economic security. Brazilian Journal of African Studies 3. 6: 123-142.

Ikuomola, A. D., Okunola, R.A., and  Akindutire, A. F. 2006. Criminality: illegal logging of woods in Nigeria’s South-West forest belt.” African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies: AJCJS, 9, 1: 141-153.

(c) Internet Sources

Africa News Update. Nigeria Police arrest 2 Chinese nationals in Zamfara State for illegal mining. Retrieved on 27 April 2022, from  https://youtu.be/qEkkqShLitc.

Channels Television. 17 Chinese, 9 others arrested for illegal mining in Osun. Retrieved on 27 April 2022, from https://youtu.be/J0al6owPeA0.

The Advocate. Illegal Gold Mining in Zamfara. Retrieved on 27 April 2022, from https://youtu.be/6tuP64u5X1k.

Reps ask Navy, NIMASA to curb illegal by foreign vessel. Retrieved on 10 June 2022, for, https://shipsandports.com.ng.


REFERENCES

[1]Age´nor, Pierre-Richard. 2004. Does globalization hurt the poor? International Economics and Economic Policy: 1-2.

[2]See Nwachukwu, L. C. 2017. The political economy of Nigeria-China bilateral relations. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Reviews 7, 2: 127.

[3]National Archives Ibadan (NAI): Nigeria, China to establish diplomatic relations. Morning Post. Thursday 11 February 1971.

[4]Nwachukwu, L. C. 2017. The political economy of Nigeria-China bilateral relations. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Reviews 7, 2: 128.

[5]Ayoola, T. J. 2013. Nigeria-China trade relations: implication on the Nigerian domestic economy. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting 4.17: 98-104.

[6]Mthembu-Salter, G. 2009. Elephants, ants and superpowers: Nigeria’s relations with China. South African Institute for International Affairs (SAIIA) Occasional Paper 42: 1-32.

[7]Nwachukwu, L. C. 2017. The political economy of Nigeria-China bilateral relations. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Reviews 7. 2: 127–135.

[8]Adesina, O.C. 2012. Friendship with the ‘Dragon:’ mapping the contemporary China-Nigeria interactions in the global marketplace. Wilberforce Island Journal of History, 1: 13-40.

[9]Raji, S. A. and Ogunrinu, A. 2018. Chinese investment and its implications for Nigeria’s economic security. Brazilian Journal of African Studies 3. 6: 123-142.

[10]Egbula, M. and Zheng, Qi. 2011. China and Nigeria: powerful South-South alliance. Paris: Sahel and West Africa Club Secretariat (SWAC/OECD). 1-19.

[11]Sun, Y. 2014. Africa in China’s foreign policy. Africa in China’s foreign policy: John L. Thornton China Centre and Africa Growth Initiative. New York: Brookings: 1-45.

[12] Tom-Jack, P. I. 2016. The evolving geopolitical relations of Nigeria and China: what is the impact of the Nigeria-China trade and direct investment on the Nigerian economy? A Master Dissertation Submitted at the Public and International Affairs, the University of Ottawa. 1-69.

[13] Ogunkola, E. O., Bankole, A, S., & Adewuyi, A. 2018. China‐Nigeria economic relations. African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) scoping studies on ChinaAfrica relations: 1-15.

[14]Lola, G. F., Rasiah, R., Teng, K. K., Muhammad, M., & Agboola, Y. H. 2017. China’s aid and oil for infrastructure in Nigeria: resource driven or development motive? Contemporary Chinese Political Economy and Strategic Relations: An International Journal 3.3: 1197-1235.

[15]Mengesha, Y. A. 2020.The economic effects of Chinese foreign aid. Journal of Economics and International Finance 12. 4: 262-277.

[16]Mandon, P. and Woldemichael, M. T. 2022. Has Chinese aid benefited recipient countries? Evidence from a meta-regression analysis.  International Monetary Fund (IMF) Publications.

[17]Mengesha, Y. A. 2020. The economic effects of Chinese foreign aid. Journal of Economics and International Finance 12. 4: 262-277.

[18]Adesina, O. C. Professor and Head of History Department, University of Ibadan. 27 April 2022.

[19]Olaniyi, R.O. Professor of History,University of Ibadan. 29 April 2022.

[20]Ibrahim, Yakubu. Businessman. Agbowo, Ibadan.  30 April 2022.

[21]Dinne, C. E. Research Officer 1, Cocoa Research Institute, Ibadan.  University of Ibadan. 28 May 2022.

[22]Chen, B. PhD Student, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, China. National Archives, Ibadan. 19 April 2022.

[23]Africa News Update. Nigeria Police arrest 2 Chinese nationals in Zamfara State for illegal mining. Retrieved on 27 April 2022, from  https://youtu.be/qEkkqShLitc.

[24]Channels Television. 17 Chinese, 9 others arrested for illegal mining in Osun. Retrieved on 27 April 2022, from https://youtu.be/J0al6owPeA0.

[25]Reps ask Navy, NIMASA to curb illegal fishing by foreign vessels. Retrieved on 10 June 2022, from https://shipsandports.com.ng.

[26]Eman, K., et al. 2009. Crimes against the environment: green criminology and research challenges in Slovenia, cited in Ikuomola, A. D., et al.  2006. Criminality: illegal logging of woods in Nigeria’s South-West forest belt. African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies: AJCJS, 9, 1: 145.

[27]National Bureau of Statistics. 2020. Nigerian domestic and foreign debt. Abuja: Nigeria.

[28]The Advocate. Illegal gold mining in Zamfara. Retrieved on 27 April 2022,from https://youtu.be/6tuP64u5X1k.

[29]NAI – Osun loses N10m to illegal forest operator. Daily Times. Monday 11 September 2000.

[30]NAI – Fagbami, Soji-Eze. Senate threatened to clamp down on Chinese products. Nigerian Tribune. Wednesday 5 November 2008.

CHUKWUEBUKA OMEJE

Chukwuebuka Omeje is a postgraduate student at the Department of History, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. His research interests are on economic history and international relation studies. He is the author of a paper entitled “the Domains of Resource Wars in Nigeria,” in Nigeria’s Resource Wars, edited by Egodi Uchendu, USA: Vernon Press. pp. 55-72.

Meanwhile, the inspiration for this topic “Globalisation and Chinese Illegal Economic Ventures in Nigeria, 2000 – 2020,” emanated from a master degree course: The Third World in a Globalised Economy (His 707), which he undertook at the Department of History, University of Ibadan. Then, he was assigned to research on “Chinese Investments in Africa,” for his seminar presentation.

He looks forward towards becoming a historian of an international repute through cross-fertilisation of knowledge and the Global History Dialogue Project (GHDP) has immensely contributed to the fulfilment of that aspiration.

CHUKWUEBUKA OMEJE

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