The second source of information was the interviewee’s friends from school, university, and surrounding areas, as well as those who have already migrated. However, the information shared among them could have needed to be completed and based solely on their thoughts and ideas, which may not be entirely true or accurate.


“My friend Ahmad is in Belgium and we usually talk with each other through WhatsApp,  I have been told that Western countries are the only place where I can get to all of my dreams and do whatever I want”. (Hameed, Kabul, Afghanistan)

Some respondents argued that they receive information about Western countries from their relatives who reside there. These relatives typically provide them with details about life, education, employment, and other social activities in Western countries.


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